The west coast port unions and Pacific Maritime Association appear to have staved off strikes for another five years, after the PMA ratified the new labour contract. While the ILWU’s ratification votes should be counted by the end of the week, it appears a deal has been reached – about a year after negotiations began. While congestion following the union’s slowdown has now mostly dissipated, the Californian ports have some work to do to win back the trust of shipping lines and shippers.

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