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As congestion at container terminals around the world has become commonplace, port productivity has inevitably come into focus.

A measure of just how serious the threat of port congestion is to global commerce was put into context by Moffat & Nichol’s chief economist Walter Kemmsies, who recently described it as a “new form of trade barrier”.
The recent travails of shipping lines and their customers on the US west coast has brought the matter to public attention – particularly when it involved a human interest story, such as McDonald’s being forced to ration portion sizes to Japanese customers because exports of US potatoes were stuck on the docks.
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