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As things come to an end in Paris, step forward the shipping and aviation lobbies which have effectively managed to duck out of any binding agreements on reducing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions – the draft agreement does not mention either of the words “shipping” or “aviation” once, and nor any synonym of them. Shipping accounts for 2.4% of global GHG emissions, putting at joint-sixth with Germany as a top global polluter, while aviation contributes 2% of GHG emissions. So what’s preventing us from tacking this? “Two major obstacles stand in the way of resolving emissions from international shipping and aviation. The first is procedural: those industries are not bound by the Paris climate deal. The second is practical: the world currently lacks a promising technology to replace carbon-based propulsion systems, as well as a promising alternative to carbon-based fuel.”

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